The Holy Spirit is the source of Life

October 5, 1911: a talk given at the home of Edith and Margaret Sanderson in Paris

The Persian notes for this talk are published in Majmú`iy-i Khiṭábát-i Ḥazrat-i `Abdu’l-Bahá, vol. 1 p. 43 (KHTB1). It is also printed in Khiṭábát-i-Mubárakih (a selection from the ‘talks’), page 41, and there is an Arabic translation in Khuṭab-i `Abdu’l-Bahá fí Úrúbá wa-Amríká, which I have consulted in preparing this provisional translation. The PIN number (Phelps inventory number) is ABU0690.

The date appears to be October 4 or 5, 1911, just after Abdu’l-Baha’s return from London. [1] On those two days, he was either staying briefly with Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney, at 15 rue Greuze, or he may have just moved into the apartment he rented at 4, avenue de Camoëns. However this talk was given at the nearby home of Edith and Margaret Sanderson, at 46 avenue de Malakoff – today called the avenue Raymond Poincaré. I am grateful to Jan Jasion’s highly recommended history Abdu’l-Baha in France: 1911 & 1913, for this information and also for his personal guidance on a recent tour of that part of Paris.

He is God.
The world of existence can be compared to the human body, and the forces of nature are like the limbs and organs of that body. The human body needs a spirit, that it may be quickened, have movement and come to life. Then the powers of sight and hearing and the capacities for movement and understanding appear. Then the dazzling light of reason shines within, a light that uncovers the realities of things so that humanity may make progress.
In the absence of the spirit, these results will not be forthcoming. However graceful and well-formed the body may be, it is a mere figure, without life, without consciousness or wisdom. It is devoid of perfection.

In the same way, the body of the contingent world is without spirit, even if in the material realm it is endowed with every possible delight and refinement.

The spirit of the world is the Faith of God, and the Faith of God is spirit to the contingent world and shines its light on it. It adorns and completes all things.
Therefore, while your thoughts are inclined to dwell on the means of material progress, you should also exert yourselves to make spiritual progress. As you are striving for physical civilization, you should devote even more effort to achieving spiritual progress. You attach great importance to the body: the spirit is also worthy of attention.

If the human temple contained no spirit, what would be the point of a body? The body is then dead. In the same way, if the body of the contingent world was deprived of mystic progress, it would be a lifeless body.

Human beings are outwardly animals: what distinguishes a person from an animal is that the person has a spiritual faculty, denied to the animal. A human knows about God while an animal knows nothing of God. The human apprehends the realities of things while the animal is unaware and heedless.

A person consciously uncovers and reveals the hidden realities of everything in existence, while an animal has not been granted a share in the reality of human perfections. The perfections become manifest like the brilliant rays of a lantern. Just as the light is the appearance of the perfections of this lamp, so religion prompts human perfections to manifest themselves.

This is the capacity that makes the human person superior to an animal. It is a fragrance breathed by the Holy Spirit that gives eternal life. Therefore if the human kingdom is deprived of the spirit of religion, it is like a lifeless body and remains deprived of the breaths of the Holy Spirit. Such a person, who has received no portion from the divine teachings, is as one dead.

Thus when Christ said “let the dead bury the dead” and “for that which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the spirit is spirit,” [2] he was referring to the true spirit of religion.

So it is evident that one who is deprived of the flowing grace of the Holy Spirit is dead, even if he is endowed with bodily perfections and has mastered the practical and abstract sciences.

Therefore I am praying, supplicating God that the people of this country may be revived by the breaths of the Holy Spirit and turn to God. That they may become a centre of divine blessings, that they may implement the divine teachings, that each may become like a lantern that has been ignited and may illumine the world.

Eleven essentials: the Bahai principles as taught by Abdu’l-Baha in London

[This provisional translation was published previously on my Bahai Studies blog ~Sen]

Towards the end of his life, Baha’u’llah wrote a number of works that included numbered lists of his teachings. The Bisharat (Glad Tidings) and Tarazat (Ornaments) are examples. Abdu’l-Baha also wrote several letters that include such numbered lists of essential Bahai teachings, and he sometimes adopted the same format when speaking to gatherings. The records of these in English are often unreliable, but one of these “principles” talks does have authenticated Persian notes (here). It caught my attention because it includes “the separation of religion and politics” as a key principle and also refers to this as “not entering into politics” — a formulation that will be more familiar to Bahais.
The talk was probably addressed to a gathering of Bahais in London on the day of his departure, 3 October 1911, but the Islamic date is given as 11 Shawwal 1329 = 5 October 1911. According to the footnote shown in the inset, “some Persian texts say it was a Theosophical Society meeting in London on December 30, 1911.” This should presumably refer to a Theosophical Society meeting on September 30, 1911. A correspondent has pointed out that this date is confirmed by “the published accounts and records of the London Theosophical Society.” An earlier report of this talk is published in Abdu’l-Baha in London (which incidentally shows that — contrary to earlier understandings — some talks in that book can be authenticated as Bahai scripture). Naturally that report, based on an interpreter’s words, is more compact than the Persian version which I have translated. Its list of principles differs, having the equality of men and women added as an implication of the oneness of humanity, and missing the ninth and tenth principles in the Persian text: that religion is separated from politics and on the education and training of women. A correspondent tells me there is another report in Contemporary Review 1912 which has the same structure as the one in Abdu’l-Baha in London. My translation below is based entirely on the Persian notes referenced above.

He is God
O respected gathering, burning is the essential property of fire, and gleaming is the essential property of the power of lightening, shining is the essential property of the sun, and the essential property of soil is to promote growth. No dislocation is possible in the essential qualities of things. Therefore change and transformation, and transposition and alteration from one condition to another, come from the essential necessities of the contingent world. For example, the succession of seasons, of spring and summer, autumn and winter, and of day and night, flow from the essential qualities of the terrestrial world. Thus every spring is followed by autumn and every summer is followed by a winter, every day by a night, every dawn by an evening.

At a time when the divine religions had entirely decayed and the conduct of the people of the world had altered, when there were no glimmerings of the heavenly light to be seen, and benevolence was a thing of the past, when the darkness of bigotry and contention and slaughter reigned, and the winter with its gloom and cold prevailed, and shadows enveloped the world, Baha’u’llah arose on the horizon of Iran like a star. The lights of resplendent guidance shone out and the heavenly illumination dawned. He promulgated new teachings, reinvigorated the human virtues, revealed heavenly bounties and disclosed the power of spirituality. He brought the following fundamental principles into the world of existence, and promulgated them:

First, the investigation of reality. All religious communities are clinging to blind imitation and therefore are in complete disagreement with one another, and in bitter strife and conflict. However the appearance of reality uncovers this darkness and leads to unity in opinion. For reality admits no multiplicity.

Second, the unity of humanity. That is, all people are recipients of great and glorious favours, they are the servants of one God, they worship one Godhead. Mercy is extended to all, and every head is adorned with the crown of humanity. Therefore all the races and religious communities should consider themselves as brothers and sisters, they should regard themselves as the branches and leaves, the blossoms and fruit, of a single tree. For all of them are the descendants of Adam, all the pearls in one shell. At most, they are in need of education. They are ignorant, they are heedless, so they are should be guided. They are ill, they should be healed; they are children, they should be nurtured in the bosom of love so that they attain to maturity and reason; polishing is required until they are gleaming and luminous.

Third, religion is the foundation of harmony and love, of solidarity and unity. If religion is made the cause of enmity it yields not solidarity but rather troubles, and the absence of religion is better than its existence. The abandonment of religion is preferable to this.

Fourth, religion and learning are twins that cannot be separated, or they are two wings on which you fly. A single wing will not suffice. Any religion that is bereft of learning is to be considered as blind imitation. It is superficial, not spiritual. Therefore the promotion of learning is one of the limbs of religion.

Fifth, religious bigotry, racial prejudice, political partisanship and national bias bring down the edifice of humanity. The reality of the divine religions is one, for reality is one and admits not plurality, and all the prophets are in the utmost unity. The prophets are the mediators of the sun: in every season they rise from a certain point. Therefore each has spoken of his successor, and that successor has confirmed the truth of his predecessor. “No distinction do we make between any of them.” [Quran 2:285]

Sixth, equality between individuals, and perfect fellowship. Justice should be so perfect that the rights of the human race are protected and assured and the rights of the public are equal. This is one of the essential requirements of life in society.

Seventh, the equalisation of the means of livelihood for all humanity, to the extent that all are freed from poverty. Every person should have enough necessities and opportunities to live at ease in a certain honour and position. Although the Emir may be glorious and be surrounded with prosperity, the poor man also should have some daily sustenance. He should not be left in a state of degradation, nor should he be denied the enjoyment of life due to extreme hunger.

Eighth, the universal peace. A supreme tribunal should be formed by all the governments and religious communities, in general elections, and any differences and disputes arising among the governments and peoples should be settled in that tribunal, so that they do not lead to war.

Ninth, religion is separated from politics. Religion does not enter into political matters. In fact, it is linked with the hearts, not with the world of bodies. The leaders of religion should devote themselves to teaching and training the souls and propagating good morals, and they should not enter into political matters.

Tenth, the education and training of women, their progress, and consideration and respect for them, since they are partners and co-equals of men in life and, with respect to their humanity, are on an equal footing.

Eleventh, seeking the bounties of the Holy Spirit, so that spiritual civilization can be established. Material civilization alone is not enough, and does not lead to human happiness. Material civilization is like the body, and spiritual civilization is like the spirit. The body does not live without the spirit. The Quran says, “Truly, We have created the human being in the best of moulds.” [95:4]

These are a selection from the teachings of Baha’u’llah. He demonstrated perseverance and bore trials and afflictions to establish and promulgate them. He was always a prisoner, enduring punishment, heavily burdened, but in the prison he laid the foundations for this sublime mansion. From the darkness of the prison he illumined the horizons with this radiant light. The supreme desire of the Bahais is that these teachings should be put in practice. They strive with heart and soul, willing to sacrifice themselves for this goal, so that heavenly light may illumine the human race.

I am exceedingly pleased to have been able to speak with you in this respected gathering. I hope very much that you will accept my sincere reflections, and breathe a prayer in your hearts that you may be aided to attain to the highest distinction of the human world.

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